Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Arak University, Arak, Iran

2 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Arak University, Arak, Iran

3 Department of Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Arak university, Arak, Iran


In vitro cultures provide a promising tool for large-scale multiplication of valuable plant species with an important role in the global ornamentals industry. In the current investigation, a rapid and efficient protocol was described for in vitro mass propagation of attractive ornamental plant Philodendron cv. Birkin through shoot tip culture. In shoot proliferation stage, 11 treatments of plant growth regulators were evaluated. The highest shoot multiplication was achieved by culturing explants in MS medium containing 3 mg/l benzyladenine (BA) and 0.5 mg/lit indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), resulting in average of 16.65 shoots per explant over a four weeks period. To induce adventitious root formation, the regenerated shoots were subsequently transferred to MS media supplemented with various concentrations of IBA and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (0.5-2 mg/l). In this regard, the superior performance of IBA compared with NAA was observed with the best response achieved using 1 mg/l IBA (resulting in a 95% rooting rate) with an average of 6.13 roots per shoot and the root length of 2.59 cm. Finally, the obtained plantlets were successfully acclimatized in a greenhouse, with 100% ex vitro survival rate. This established protocol can serve as an effective alternative to classical propagation methods for mass multiplication of this valuable decorative plant.


  1. Ahmad, N., Faisal, M., Anis, M., and Aref, I.M. 2010. In vitro callus induction and plant regeneration from leaf explants of Ruta graveolens L. South African Journal of Botany, 76 (3): 597-600.
  2. Al-Aizari, A.A., Al-Obeed, R.S., and Mohamed, M.A.H. 2020. Improving micropropagation of some grape cultivars via boron, calcium and phosphate. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 48: 95-100.
  3. Alawaadh, A.A., Dewir, Y.H., Alwihibi, M.S., Aldubai, A.A., El-Hendawy, S., and Naidoo, Y. 2020. Micropropagation of lacy tree Philodendron (Philodendron bipinnatifidum Schott ex Endl.). HortScience, 55 (3): 294-299.
  4. Bayraktar, M., Hayta-Smedley, S., Unal, S., Varol, N., and Gurel, A. 2020. Micropropagation and prevention of hyperhydricity in olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar ‘Gemlik’. South African Journal of Botany, 128: 264-273.
  5. Canal, D., Koster, N., Jones, K.E., Korotkova, N., Croat, T.B., and Borsch, T. 2018. Phylogeny and diversification history of the large Neotropical genus Philodendron (Araceae): Accelerated speciation in a lineage dominated by epiphytes. American Journal of Botany, 105 (6): 1-18.
  6. Cartabia, A., Sarropoulou, V., Grigoriadou, K., Maloupa, E., and Declerck, S. 2022. In vitro propagation of Alkanna tinctoria Tausch.: a medicinal plant of the Boraginaceae family with high pharmaceutical value. Industrial Crops and Products, 182: 114860.
  7. Desai, P., Patil, G., Dholiya, B., Desai, S., Patel, F., and Narayanan, S. 2018. Development of an efficient micropropagation protocol through axillary shoot proliferation for pomegranate variety ‘Bhagwa’. Annals of Agrarian Science, 16 (4): 444-450.
  8. Farooq, I., Qadri, Z.A., Rather, Z.A., Nazki, I.T., Banday, N., Rafiq, S., Masoodi, K.Z., Noureldeen, A., and Mansoor, S. 2021. Optimization of an improved, efficient and rapid in vitro micropropagation protocol for Petunia hybrida Vilm. Cv. ‘Bravo’. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 28: 3701-3709.
  9. Ghareeb, Z.F., and Taha, L.S. 2018. Micropropagation protocol for Antigonon leptopus an important ornamental and medicinal plant. Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 16 (2): 669-675.
  10. Gomes, F., Simões, M., Lopes, M.L., and Canhoto, J.M. 2010. Effect of plant growth regulators and genotype on the micropropagation of adult trees of Arbutus unedo L. (strawberry tree). New Biotechnology, 27 (6): 882-892.
  11. Hosseinabadi, S., Khaleghi, A., Akramian, M., and Khadivi, A. 2022. A highly efficient plant regeneration of Begonia rex Putz. by direct organogenesis of leaf explants. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 97 (4): 496-502.
  12. Jagiełło-Kubiec, K., Nowakowska, K., Ilczuk, A., and Łukaszewska, A.J. 2021. Optimizing micropropagation conditions for a recalcitrant ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius L. maxim.) cultivar. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant, 57 (2): 281-295.
  13. Jun-jie, Z., Yue-sheng, Y., Meng-fei, L., Shu-qi, L., Yi, T., Han-bin, C., and Xiao-yang, C. 2017. An efficient micropropagation protocol for direct organogenesis from leaf explants of an economically valuable plant, drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam.). Industrial Crops and Products, 103: 59-63.
  14. Kaliamoorthy, S., Naidoo, G., and Achar, P. 2008. Micropropagation of Harpagophytum procumbens. Biologia plantarum, 52 (1): 191-194.
  15. Kumar, S.S., and Giridhar, P. 2020. In vitro micropropagation of Basella rubra L. through proliferation of axillary shoots. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 144 (2): 477-483.
  16. Lara-Ascencio, M., Andrade-Rodríguez, M., Guillén-Sánchez, D., Sotelo-Nava, H., and Villegas-Torres, O. 2019. Establishment of in vitro aseptic culture of Philodendron xanadu Croat. Revista Ciencia Agronomica, 52: 2.
  17. Mohamad, M.E., Awad, A.A., Majrashi, A., Esadek, O.A.A., El-Saadony, M.T., Saad, A.M., and Gendy, A.S. 2022. In vitro study on the effect of cytokines and auxins addition to growth medium on the micropropagation and rooting of Paulownia species (Paulownia hybrid and Paulownia tomentosa). Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 29 (3): 1598-1603.
  18. Murashige, T., and Skoog, F. 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum, 15 (3): 473-497.
  19. Nakano, M., Mizunashi, K., Tanaka, S., Godo, T., Nakata, M., and Saito, H. 2004. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from callus cultures of several species in the genus Tricyrtis. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant, 40 (3): 274-278.
  20. Nithya, V., and Kamalam, M. 2021. Standardization of a protocol for micropropagation of Eupatorium glandulosum L. an important medicinal plant. Plant Cell, Tissuue and Organ Culture, 146: 339-344.
  21. Purohit, S., Nandi, S.K., Paul, S., Tariq, Mohd., and Palni, L.M.S. 2017. Micropropagation and genetic fidelity analysis in Amomum subulatum Roxb.: A commercially important Himalayan plant. Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 4:21-26.
  22. Rafiq, S., Rather, Z.A., Bhat, R.A., Nazki, I.T., AL-Harbi, M.S., Banday, N., Farooq, I., Samra, B.N., Khan, M.H., Ahmed, A.F., and Andrabi, N. 2021. Standardization of in vitro micropropagation procedure of Oriental Lilium Hybrid Cv. ‘Ravenna’. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 28 (12): 7581-7587.
  23. Raju, R., and Divya, C. 2020. Micropropagation of Syzygium densiflorum Wall. ex Wight & arn.: An endemic and endangered semi-evergreen tree species of the Western Ghats, India. Trees, Forests and People, 2: 100037.
  24. Sethy, R., and Kullu, B. 2022. Micropropagation of ethnomedicinal plant Calotropis sp. and enhanced production of stigmasterol. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 149: 147-158.
  25. Showkat Bhat, M., Ahmad Rather, Z., Tahir Nazki, I., Banday, N., Wani, T., Rafiq, S., Farooq, I., Noureldeen, A., and Darwish, H. 2022. Standardization of in vitro micropropagation of Winter Jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum) using nodal explants. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 29: 3425-3431.
  26. Subotić, A., Jevremović, S., and Grubišić, D. 2009. Influence of cytokinins on in vitro morphogenesis in root cultures of Centaurium erythraea-Valuable medicinal plant. Scientia Horticulturae, 120 (3): 386-390.
  27. Veraplakorn, V. 2016. Micropropagation and callus induction of Lantana camara L. - A medicinal plant. Agriculture and Natural Resources, 50 (5): 338-344.